The book of Lamentations is part of the major Prophetical books in the Word of God, and is referred to as the Lamentations of Jeremiah. It is basically an index to the book of Jeremiah. This short article is only intended to present a simple outline or overview of how the book is compiled in Hebrew poetry.
Lamentations is actually divided into five parts with each part being a chapter, given the nature of the book being in Hebrew poetry. In chapters 1 and 2 the initial letter of each verse, consisting of three parts of lines, follows the Hebrew alphabetical order. Chapter 1 presents the Lamentation over the destruction of Jerusalem and the sorrow of God’s people. Chapter 2 shows what the Lord has done, and the reason for the wrath in the first place.
In chapter 3, each verse in every succeeding set of three begins with the same Hebrew letter; and the whole in alphabetical order. This chapter speaks of the mercies of God (verses 22-23) and truly we can say with the hymnwriter ‘Great is Thy faithfulness’. The chapter also brings before us the lamentations of the prophet Jeremiah, his suffering and distress.
In chapter 4, the initial Hebrew letter of each verse, consisting of two parts or lines, follows the alphabetical order. This chapter presents the sufferings during the siege of Jerusalem, and the departed glory.
Chapter 5 contains 22 single lines which, however, are not in alphabetical order. This chapter contains a prayer for mercy, and at the same time, prayer of hope.
Some parallels to Christ and the New Testament:
Lam 2:15-16 with Matt 27:39
Lam 3:8 with Matt 27:46
Lam 3:19 with Matt 27:34