The events in the book of Job is perhaps in between Genesis 11 and 12, while God was dealing with Abram (before his name was called Abraham) at the same time. Job is one of the oldest books, and it is generally believed that the events occurred just after the flood. It was just after the flood that the age of death was much lower than before the flood. It is suggested that Job lived about 200 years, because he lived 140 years after his experience and after God had blessed him when he confessed his sin (Job 42:7, 16).
Job is a historical person and is mentioned in Ezekiel 14:14,20 and James 5:11.
There are five main divisions in the book:
- Chapters 1-2 give a historical introduction and narrative. The adversary Satan still has access to heaven (not the Father’s house) but his power is broken, which happened at the cross (Heb 2:14) see also Isaiah 14:12-25; Ez 28:14-19.
- Chapters 3-31 conversations and controversies between Job and his three friends. Job mentions about a redeemer in ch 19:25. In chapter 19:23 he wished that his words were written in a book. Little did he know that this would come to pass! How gracious is God! In this section Job’s friends argue with him that he must have sinned and God put him through this. His friends basically relied on traditions, or past history, intuition, and what they saw and heard, and Job kept on justifying himself rather than God. Job ended up calling his friends ‘miserable comforters’.
- Chapters 32-37 records the testimony of Elihu, a messenger and type of Christ. See ch 32:8; 33:4,24.
- Chapters 38-42:6 records the words of the Lord in reference to His great glory in creation.
- Chapter 42:7 to the end records the wonderful result of God’s dealings in restoring Job to greater blessings.
Other references to the name Satan – 1 Chronicles 21:1; Zechariah 3:1-2
Main theme of Job: the work of God in dealing with the individual. Christ is the advocate ch 9:33 cp 1 John 2:1-2, and the mediator ch 16:21 cp 1 Tim 2:5; Heb 7:25
God allowed this incident in Job’s life to prove Satan false.
God had work to do with Job himself.
The ways of God with mankind have a good purpose for the believer Rom 8:28.
The question in Job is how can man be just with God? Ch 9:2; 25:4 we have the answer in the Epistle to the Romans.
Some key words referring to Christ: (if we are going to get the most out of Job, we need to see Christ in the book).
In chapter 9:33 we find the mention of an umpire, or a mediator, pointing to the Lord Jesus Christ.
In chapter 16:19 the mention of a witness, referring to Christ and in verse 21 there is the mention of an arbitration, or a mediator.
In chapter 19:25 the mention of a redeemer, referring to Christ.
In chapter 33:23 the mention of a messenger and interpreter, referring to Christ.
In chapter 33:26 the mention of prayer to God. Compare also Acts 9:11.
In Job 16:8-19 the sufferings of Job, many of the expressions in this passage are applied in the Psalms to the sufferings of Christ.
Job 33:23-30 God’s restoring grace.
In verse 23 we see the messenger and mediator – see also 1 Tim 2:5.
In verse 24 we see that God found the ransom in Christ- see Mark 10:45; 1 Tim 2:6.
In verse 25 we have the flesh like a little child, referring to the new birth – John 3.
In verse 26 we have the result in thankful prayer to God – see Paul in Acts 9:11. God restores man to righteousness- 1 John 3:2; 1 Cor 1:30.
In this passage we have the gospel anticipated by the words of Elihu, spoken by the power of the Holy Spirit.
The advanced knowledge of science also are stated in this wonderful book. Some verses for reference and further examination are:
Ch 26:7 the suspension of the earth
Ch 33:6 composition of the human body
Ch 37:9,17 about the winds and weather direction